Basic principles of maps and cartography
Basic principles of maps and cartography

Basic principles of maps and cartography

A map is an image of part or all of the earth’s surface on a reduced data plane with a certain scale dimension. The map has the following conditions:

  1. Maps don’t have to be confusing. So the map must be equipped with map elements/components such as title, astronomical line, location insert, outline, map scale, source, year of manufacture, map orientation, color, legend, script and map projection.
  2. Maps must be easy to understand by map users.
  3. The maps must provide a faithful image and in accordance with the objectives of mapping, namely:
  4. Shows the position or relative location of a place on the earth’s surface.
  5. Show size./
  6. Describe the shapes of the earth’s surface.
  7. Presenting data about the potential of an area and so on.
  8. The layout of the map should be pleasing to the eye, attractive, neat and clean.

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Some elements or components of map completeness namely:

  1. Title, indicating the content and type of map.
  2. Astronomical lines (latitude and longitude), which show the absolute location of a place.
  3. Inset location, shows the location of the map area in its position with the surrounding area.
  4. The border line is the unifier of the map components so that the map position is exactly in the middle.
  5. Map scale, the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground. There are 3 map scales namely:
  6. Number scale, using numbers.
  7. Scale the line, using the line.
  8. Scale in inches, using inches for miles.

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Mapping formula

Map source, showing where the data and maps come from/obtain. Year of manufacture, to show the accuracy of the data. The orientation of the map, which shows the accuracy of the data.

Color / color gradation, describes the condition of certain objects (such as blue representing water, green representing lowlands, yellow representing highlands and so on).

Legend, as a description of map symbols used to facilitate reader understanding.

Written/letterswriting or numbers on the map.

Map projection, provides information about the map projection used. There are 4 map projections namely:

  1. flat projection (zenith / azimuth)
  2. conical projection (conical)
  3. single projection (unique)
  4. cylindrical projection (cylindrical).

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The conditions for the map to be said to be good are:

  1. Equivalentthat is, the area on the completed map must be equal to the area of ​​the earth’s surface after multiplying the scale.
  2. Conformable which means that the shape of the angle on the rendered map must be the same as the original shape and angle.
  3. Equidistant which means that the distance on the map made must be the same as the actual distance on the surface of the earth after multiplying the scale.
  4. direction, the direction on the map must be the same as the actual direction.