Additives in psychotropics |  HANSON.CO.ID
Additives in psychotropics | HANSON.CO.ID

Additives in psychotropics | HANSON.CO.ID

Addictive substances are chemicals that cause dependence or addiction in the wearer.

Psychotropics are substances or drugs that can affect mental activity and behavior that are commonly used to treat various mental disorders.

Types and classification of psychotropics

A. Stimulant drugs (stimulant drugs)

A class of drugs that are very effective in stimulating the brain and nervous system.

1) Amphetamine (ectasia)

Medicines used for:

  • Increases stamina and alertness,
  • increased fatigue, hunger and sleepiness,
  • gives a happy effect (euphoria),
  • as a doping agent to increase performance beyond its normal capacity.

Excessive use can lead to mental confusion, violent behavior, hallucinations, strokes and heart attacks.

2) Cocaine

It is a stimulant drug that is more than amphetamine. This medicine is made from plants Erythroxylon coca.

Using this medicine causes effects including:

  • inhibit hunger,
  • reduces the feeling of fatigue and the need for sleep,
  • trigger the heart
  • increases blood pressure and body temperature.

Misuse of this drug causes constipation, extreme nervousness, nerve damage, hallucinations, insomnia, violent behavior, feelings of terror, and damage to mucus in the nose or throat. In the medical world, cocaine is used for local anesthesia.

b. Depressive

A class of drugs that can slow the activity of the central nervous system, resulting in a decreased level of consciousness. Called a sedative.


1) Morphine

Morphine is obtained from the sap of plants Somniverum paper. Morphine is useful for:

  • relieves/reduces pain
  • it gives a feeling of comfort and joy and
  • reduces feelings of anxiety and restlessness.

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Medically, morphine is used to relieve the cough reflex and relieve pain during surgery.

Excessive abuse of morphine can cause stupor and death.

2) Barbital

Barbital is classified as a sedative drug that can be used for:

  • help you sleep
  • banish anxiety, tension and frustration.

Medically, barbital is used as a sleeping pill, a medicine for epilepsy (seizures) and as a sedative in stressful situations. Excessive use of barbital, especially when mixed with alcohol, can lead to coma and even death.

c. hallucinogenic

A class of drugs that cause hallucinations (delusions).

1) LSD

Useful for treating headaches (migratory) and reducing bleeding after childbirth.

The side effect of using LSD is to induce suicidal tendencies.

2) Ganja

Cannabis is made from the dried plant Cannabis sativa. Effect:

  • create a dream situation
  • it gives a feeling of comfort and joy.

Medically, marijuana is used to reduce migraine attacks, to reduce eye pressure in patients with glaucoma (cataract), to treat nausea (nausea) in cancer patients dealing with the effects of chemotherapy and radiation.

Side effects of marijuana use include dizziness, lethargy, slurred speech, paranoid symptoms (fear), decreased communication and mobility.

Types and classification of addictive substances

in the. Drugs

Also called narcotics, it comes from the English language (narcotics) which means anesthetic. Based on the source and method of manufacture, narcotics are classified into three.

  • Opium is also known as opium. Opium can be used to make morphine, heroin and caffeine.
  • Coca is known as the plant Erythoxilon coca or lomarch.
  • Ganja

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b. Alcoholic drink

Liquor contains an alcohol called ethanol. Alcohol is obtained from the fermentation process of honey, sugar and fruit or tuber juice. The maximum level of alcohol in the blood is 20-90 milliliters per minute. The effect of increasing blood alcohol levels will make people euphoric (drunk), but after experiencing a decrease the person is depressed.

There are three categories of alcoholic beverages namely as follows.

Liqueur with an ethanol content between 1%-5%. Example: beer

Liquor with an ethanol content between 5%-20%. Example: whiskey

Liqueur with an ethanol content between 20%-55%. Example: wine, brandy

c. Psychotropic

Psychotropic drugs that have the potential to cause dependence syndrome are classified into 4 namely as follows.

This type has a very strong potential to cause addiction and is declared as a prohibited item. Example: ectasia

This type has a strong potential to cause addiction. Example: flexilidine (PCP)

This species has a moderate potential for addiction. Examples: flunitra-zepan, rohypnol and magadon.

This guy has a slight potential for addiction. Examples: alparozolam (Xanax) and bromazepam (Lexotan).

d. Other addictive substances

Derived from volatile solutions such as glue, spray paint, fixative, air freshener. It can also come from gases such as nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and anesthetics (sedatives), for example: ether and chloroform. Excessive use of inhalers can cause unbearable dizziness and even fainting.

Contained in tobacco leaves. The tobacco is then made into cigarettes. In addition to nicotine, cigarettes and their smoke also contain 4000 chemicals that are harmful to the body. Among them:

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Chemical material Consequence
Nicotine – causes addiction,

– damage brain tissue

– determines the easy coagulation of the blood

Tar – lung cell damage

– increases the production of phlegm/mucus in the lungs,

– causes lung cancer.



– reduces the amount of oxygen that the blood can bind,

– blocks the transport of oxygen in the body

Carcinogenic substances It stimulates the growth of cancer cells in the body
Irritating – causes coughing,

– causes lung cancer

– irritates the lungs.

People who smoke are called active smoker and people who accidentally inhale the cigarette smoke produced by active smokers are mentioned passive smoker. The impact felt by passive smokers is more dangerous than active smokers because they inhale unfiltered smoke. People who smoke means introducing toxins into the body, for pregnant women who smoke can abort the fetus, and the toxins from cigarettes can also cause infertility.

Stimulant (enhancing) substance. Caffeine relieves sleepiness, fatigue and hunger. In natural ingredients, caffeine is found in tea or coffee in low levels. Tea or coffee can be addictive if consumed in excess (more than 20 cups a day). Excessive consumption (more than the maximum limit written on the package), in addition to causing addiction, also causes kidney and heart failure to work beyond the limit because they are triggered.